Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly
called coffee beans, of the coffee plant. Due to its caffeine content,
coffee has a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the most
popular beverages worldwide. Approximately 90% of world coffee production is
represented by the species Coffea arabica; about 9% by the species Coffea
robusta; with minor production from the species Coffea libericia. Most
processed coffee available in the market are differentiated in terms of
Aroma, Blend and Flavour which comes from the way it is processed.
Processing coffee to a perfect blend and taste is an art and requires
excellent techniques of extraction, roasting, concentration, aroma recovery,
spray drying and agglomeration.
SSP & COFFEE
SSP has designed and supplied coffee extractors, instant
coffee powder plant, aroma recovery system, evaporator, spray dryer and
agglomerator to quite a large number of instant coffee manufacturers in
India and abroad which are running successfully. With our core competency
lying in the field of evaporation and drying technology SSP has collaborated
with leading manufacturers of green coffee cleaning, blending, roasting and
grinding equipment manufacturer to supply instant coffee plants on turn key
basis. SSP has also collaborated with leading companies for supply of
continuous freeze drying equipment for production of freeze dried coffee.
Coffee produced from SSP's plants have excellent aroma due to our extensive knowledge and experience on coffee. SSP
offers the most energy efficient soluble coffee processing technology and
are in a position to supply upto 15TPD instant coffee production plant.
Coffee plants with smaller capacities are also available e.g. 50 kg/hr, 100
kg/hr, 150 kg/hr, 200 kg/hr, 250 kg/hr of instant powder production
capacities. SSP has already designed, engineered and supplied a few complete
plant on turnkey basis & is negotiating a few more.
THE PROCESS IN BRIEF:
1. CLEANING & BLENDING OF GREEN COFFEE
The first step is thorough cleaning of defective beans, &
separation of nails, stones, dirt & dusts. Blending of beans is carried
out before roasting by installing volumetric feeders at the outlet of the
silos. Through this process various kinds of blends are obtained depending
on the taste and demand of the market.
GREEN COFFEE CLEANING
2. ROASTING & GRINDING OF GREEN COFFEE
Roasting of coffee beans develops the flavor & aroma
which depends on various physical & chemical changes which occur during
roasting. Degree of roast & roasting temperature are very important and
plays an important role in deciding the flavor and colour of the final
COFFEE ROASTING CUM GRINDING UNIT
3. COFFEE EXTRACTION SYSTEM
The third step is extraction of ground coffee through a
continuous process in a pressurized vessel with hot water. To get a better
yield seven batteries of counter column extractor cell is used featuring
extraction under closely controlled system. Extraction is greatly influenced
by factors like type of green coffee beans, degree of roast, type of grind,
ratio of coffee to water & mode of heat input.
4. CLARIFICATION SYSTEM
The extracted coffee solution is passed through a
centrifugal clarifier to separate the insoluble solids.
5. AROMA RECOVERY CUM CONCENTRATION SYSTEM (ARC System)
After clarification extracted coffee liquor is passed
through the aroma recovery cum evaporation plant. In the plant the volatile
aroma is stripped off from the coffee before it enters the evaporator. Based
on the boiling points of the aroma constituents SSP has developed a new
technology for the extraction of these aroma without diluting them with the
water vapours so the result is more pure and concentrated aroma. This
technology is called the ARC System which stands for AROMA RECOVERY CUM
CONCENTRATION SYSTEM which is integrated with the evaporation system. In the
evaporator concentration of the extract is done through multi-effect
evaporators with TVR systems for concentration up to 50-55%. It is possible
to concentrate the extract further up to 65-70%, to reduce the load on freeze
AROMA RECOVERY UNIT
6. COFFEE CONCENTRATION
The next step is concentration of the extract through
multi-effect evaporators with TVR systems upto 50% concentration is
EVAPORATION SECTION - PART 2 CALANDRM SECTION
7. SPRAY DRYING SYSTEM
The concentrated coffee is then converted to instant
coffee powder by spray drying. Drying is done under controlled conditions to
protect and preserve aroma and flavor in the coffee.
SPRAY DRYING SECTION
8. AGGLOMERATION SYSTEM
Lastly, the Spray dried powder can be converted into
soluble (instant) granules in an agglomerator tower by Re-wet agglomeration
technique. This technique results in the formation of bigger sized porus
particles, and reduces the bulk density thereby increasing the
instant ability of the powder. Hence when a spoon of this agglomerated powder
is put in water, it disperses completely due to the osmotic pressure of the
9. PACKING & FILLING
The instant coffee powder is then taken to the tote-bins
for storage & packing. For filling into tins or jars, vacuum operated
filling system is used. For filling into sachets, a form fill-sealing
machine is used. The filled containers/flexible packing are packed in the
shipping cartons and sent for dispatch to the finished goods warehouse.
UNIQUE FEATURES OF SSP'S INSTANT COFFEE PLANTS
- Integrated Evaporation and Aroma recovery system, both of which can
be controlled from one PLC.
- Saves lot of energy as pre-heating is carried out with generated
vapours in the evaporator.
- The system provides aroma at a higher concentration and is not
diluted with water vapours.
- Availability of concentrated Aroma allows higher concentration feed
to Spray Dryer, which increases productivity.
- Unique Agglomerator design ensures stronger particle with less fines.
- Aroma Recovery System consists of Rotating Stripper Column which
makes it sturdy and easier to handle.
- SSP evaporators are most energy efficient. In a 5 effect plant with
TVR the specific steam consumption is 0.12 Kg/Kg i.e 1 Kg of steam
evaporates 8 Kgs of water.
- Flexibility in Agglomerator for obtaining required bulk density.
SSP'S UNIQUE EVAPORATOR DESIGN ENSURES:
- Highest energy efficiency.
- High Product Quality.
- Compact design.
- Easy operation & automatic control.
- Low operation cost.
SSP'S UNIQUE SPRAY DRYER DESIGN ENSURES:
- Flexibility in controlling powder quality and production of instant
- Less down time for maintenance purposes.
- Possibility of expanding capacity upto 100%.
- SSP has supplied more than 50 spray dryers, the biggest one is having
a powder output of 38 TPD.
Freeze Drying System
Instant coffee powder is usually made by evaporation of coffee extract upto
40-45% concentration by use of an evaporator followed by spray drying at a
high temperature (180-220 °C ). This results in change in appearance,
colour, loss of aroma and taste.
However, use of freeze dryer retains aroma, improves appearance and taste
because freeze drying takes place at a low temperature which minimizes heat
damage and retains volatile components (aroma). It also increases the shelf
life of the dried product as compared to standard drying practices.
Freeze-drying involves dehydration of food products at low temperature and
pressure. As a result only the moisture is removed, leaving the molecular
structure intact. The end product is light in weight with least or no change
in volume. Worldwide freeze-drying technology is considered as the ultimate
amongst all other dehydration methods. Hence this technique is currently
being used for the production of instant coffee.
In a freeze drying system, concentrated coffee (42-45%), is first freezed
and then exposed to a low partial pressure (4.6 mmHg) of water vapour when
ice sublimes directly to vapour leaving behind dried coffee.
Freeze drying is an expensive process in terms of capital, expenditure and
operating cost but results in excellent product quality.
FREEZE DRYING OF COFFEE INVOLVES FOUR STEPS:
Pre-freezing coffee concentrate up to -5 / -10 °C
followed by foaming.
Freezing of the prefreezed coffee liquor at -50 °C in a blast freezer.
Sizing of the freezed coffee particles to a granular size of 3X3mm.
Sublimation of the ice in a vacuum freeze dryer (VFD) under vacuum (0.5
torr) and controlled temperature.
SSP has developed this technology successfully in their R&D laboratory,
where a pilot plant has been set up for demonstration.
ADVANTAGES OF SSP'S FREEZE DRYERS ARE:
- Continuous plant, which needs less space.
- Most energy efficient.
- Minimum heat damages, which helps in retaining good appearance and
colour of the product.
- Retaining most of the Aroma due to the use of most innovative Aroma
- Quick and complete re-hydration due to porous structure (Instant)
- Less man power requirement (fully automated)