Honey being a biological substance and intended for food &
pharmaceutical use needs greater attention in quality and its handling. The
moisture content in honey plays an important role in deciding the quality of
honey. Honey with more than 20% moisture are thinner in consistency. The
moisture content in honey increases due to hygroscopic nature of honey in
which the surrounding atmospheric moisture is absorbed by honey. If the
moisture content is more than 20% the honey is liable to spoilage due to
fermentation & granulation. Considering the present practice of
collection, storage & handling of honey under uncontrolled conditions
including climatic factors the honey needs processing, reduction of moisture
& packing by utmost care to protect the valuable natural properties.
|Sucrose (Non Reducing Sugar)
|Total Ash (Minerals)
|Proteins, Amino Acids, etc.
|Other ingredients including pollen
BRIEF PROCESS DESCRIPTION
- Pre-Heating and Straining
- Inactivation of Yeast Cells (Processing)
- Vacuum Evaporation
- Cooling of Honey
HONEY EXTRACTION PROCESS
Egg Processing Plant
are an excellent food containing many essential nutrients. The higher
nutrients density of eggs relative to their calorie content makes them
excellent food. Two large chicken eggs contains about 12 gms of protein, 1.2
gms of carbohydrate 11 gms of lipids and substantial amount of iron,
phosphorous, vitamin A, E, K and most of the B complex vitamins. White
portion of the egg contains almost 90% water, but contributes about 50%
protein, niacin and riboflavin. Most of the vitamins and minerals are found
in egg yolk. The yellow color of egg yolk is due to the presence of
Eggs are taken from the cold storage and weighed. Dirty
eggs are sent to a washing machine before they are broken. Rotten eggs are
removed by candling. Egg breaking can be done manually or by using
continuous egg breaking & separation machines. A skilled operator can
break 500 to 800 eggs per hour. In case of large handling fully automatic
machines are available.
For processing egg whites, efficient separation of egg whites from yolks is
of great importance as no yolk must contaminate the whites. Even a small
amount of yolk oil in albumen greatly reduces the quality of the product.
Modern machines can achieve the limits of yolk oil in egg white to the
extent of < 0.02%, which is acceptable.
In the production process of whole-egg or egg-yolk powder, whole eggs/egg
yolks are homogenized, filtered to remove membranes and fragments of shell
pieces. Pasteurization will be done at 64 to 66°C, with a holding time
of 2 to 4 min. This ensures inactivation of most of the microbes such as E.
coli and Salmonella which can cause ill health, if not inactivation.
After pasteurization whole eggs (solids content 20 to 27%) or egg yolk
(solids content 40 to 48%) are fed to the spray dryer. The drying-air inlet
temperature ranges between 150°C and 200°C. Final powder has a
moisture content of 2 to 4% and bulk density of 0.3 0.35 g/cm³. The
powder is then packed suitably after subsequent cooling.
FLOW DIAGRAM OF EGG PROCESSING PLANT